The Battle of Exercise Tiger: The LST's Finest Hour
What began as a top secret naval operation to prepare US Army and Naval forces for the June 6th D-Day Invasion, would end with one of the highest losses ever suffered in combat by the US Army and Navy in WW II.
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The History of Exercise Tiger... The LST's Finest Hour

What began as a top secret naval operation to prepare US Army and Naval forces for the June 6th D-Day Invasion, would end with one of the highest losses ever suffered in combat by the US Army and Navy in WW II.

At 0135 on the morning of April 28th, 1944, eight Tank Landing Ships (LST's) and thier lone escort, the British corvette HMS AZALEA, were en route to the landing area. Slapton Sands was selected because its beach looked every bit like the beaches at Normandy that would be code named Utah and Omaha by the allies.

The eight LST's of LST Group 32, formed convoy T-4. they were the support group for elements of the 4th & 29th Infantry, 82nd Airborne and 188th Field Artillery Group already ashore at Slapton Sands.

The LST's were carrying the 1st Engineer Special Brigade, the 3206th Quartermaster Company from Missouri, the 3207th Company and 462nd and 478th combat truck support companies as well as other elements of the US Army's engineer, signal, medical and chemical corps along with some infantry.

Miles south in the mouth of Lyme bay, lay the bulk of the Tiger naval force. Protected by the cruiser USS AGUSTA and the new British "O" class destroyers HMS ONSLOW and HMS OBEDIENT as well as the Tribal Class destroyer HMS ASHANTI and a covering force of motor torpedo boats. Anchored along with LST's 55 and 382 they would be of no help to the ambushed LST force of T-4.

Attacking in the pitch black night, 9 German Navy "E" boats (torpedo) struck quickly and decisively. Without warning LST 507 was torpedoed first. Explosions and flame lit the night. At 0217 LST 531 is torpedoed. It sinks in six minutes. Of the 496 soldiers and sailors on her, 424 of them died. It would be on this ship that the state of Missouri would lose some 201 of its boys of the 3206th.

LST 289 tried to evade the fast German "E" boats but was hit in the stern. LST's 496, 515, and 511 all began firing at their attackers, LST 289 joined in returning fire while lowering landing craft to pull it out of harms way.

At 0225 the LST 499 radioed for help.Minutes later the lead ship ,LST 515 sent out an urgent and chilling message. " 'E' boat attack". Radio stations along the coast pick up the dramatic calls for help. unaware of the top secret operation underway, the calls go unanswered. Only after an alert radio operator heard the words "T-4", did the Naval Command realize the calls were from "Tiger" and send help.

By 0240 the horror was slowly realized. Two LST's sunk, a third lay crippled. Of the 4000 man force nearly a fourth were missing or killed . Official Dept. of Defense records confirm 749 dead , 551 US Army and 198 US Navy. The death toll makes "Tiger" the costliest battle to U.S. forces at that point in the war after Pearl Harbor.

On April 28th, 1944, the LST's darkest yet finest hour occurred. When, for one hour, the men and ships of Convoy T-4 fought the greatest naval battle ever faced by an LST force in history. Against superior enemy warships, the Tiger amphibious force held its own.

The German attack did not stop Exercise Tiger. Landing operations resumed later on the 28th. It is a credit to the tenacity and determination of the soldiers and sailors involved in Exercise Tiger, that the D-Day invasion at Normandy occurred as planned.

The events surrounding Exercise Tiger were officially declassified in early August 1944, two months after the Normandy Invasion. On April 28th 1996 Secretary of The Navy John Dalton stated in his remarks “Tiger….was the LST’s finest hour.”

More historical information is available at the Naval Historical Center Website

From the 4-28-14 Early Bird a military news clipping service

D-Day Practice More Deadly than Real Thing
Western Morning News | Apr 26, 2014

Exercise Tiger proved to be the most deadly training incident in the whole of the Second World War.
The similarity between the Start Bay area and the Normandy coast prompted its use for several full-scale battle practices. Slapton Sands was thought to be a perfect place to simulate landings for Utah Beach in France as part of Operation Overlord on June 6, 1944.

In the early hours of April 28, 1944, eight landing ship tanks (LSTs) full of American servicemen and equipment converged in Lyme Bay and made their way towards Slapton Sands for a D-Day rehearsal. Four German E-Boats, alerted by heavy radio traffic, intercepted the three-mile convoy of vessels and the heavily laden, slow-moving LSTs proved easy targets for the torpedo boats.

A series of tragedies, including the absence of a British Navy destroyer assigned as an escort and an error in radio frequencies, led to three of the LSTs being hit by torpedoes. More loss of life was caused by life jackets being incorrectly worn and the extreme cold of the sea. A total of 749 American soldiers and sailors died.

The loss of life was greater than that later suffered by the assault troops during the initial attack on Utah Beach.

Allied commanders, fearing the news might make its way into German hands and reveal the intentions for the D-Day landings, immediately ordered a communication blackout. Approximately 12 weeks before the military exercises, many of the villages surrounding Slapton Sands had been evacuated.

The soldiers and sailors who survived were ordered not to speak about the incident and many did not talk about it until 50 years later.

It remained a secret until Ken Small, then a Torcross hotelier, was told about a Sherman Duplex Drive tank that was resting on the sea bed three-quarters of a mile out from the shore.

After negotiations over several years, he bought it from the US Government for $50, finally recovering it from the sea in May 1984. Thanks to his efforts, the Sherman Tank Memorial was officially recognised by US Congress and acknowledged by the addition of a bronze plaque.
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